“The crushed leaves of all species exude a spicy, fragrant essential oil. Of the species examined in one study, M. didyma contained the highest concentration of oil.
Several species, including Monarda fistulosa and M. didyma, have a long history of use as medicinal plants by many Native Americans, such as the Blackfoot, Menominee, Ojibwa and Winnebago. The Blackfoot recognized the strong antiseptic action of the plants, and used them in poultices for skin infections and minor wounds. Native Americans and later settlers also used it to alleviate stomach and bronchial ailments. A tisane made from the plant was also used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis. Bee balm is a natural source of the antiseptic compound thymol, the primary active ingredient in some modern commercial mouthwash formulas. The Winnebago used a bee balm tisane as a general stimulant. Bee balm was also used as a carminative herb by Native Americans to prevent excessive flatulence. An infusion of crushed, boiled Monarda has been used to treat headache and fever.” Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarda
“M.didyma is most widely used. It's chemical constituents may provide protection from diseases of aging.” Medicinal Plants of North America, Jim Meuninck (2008)
“Due to the presence of a high thymol content which is a strong antiseptic (also in thyme), Monarda has been used in infusion form for a variety of ailments in its long past: colds, flu, upper respiratory problems, gas, diarrhea, nausea, fevers and whooping cough, and topically for skin problems and wounds. “
Herbal Academy of New England (https://theherbalacademy.com/benefits-of-bee-balm-monarda-fistulosa-and-m-didyma/)